Abstracts in English

Marek Popielarski
• Symbolika uczty w „Państwie” Platona według Erica Voegelina
• Symbolism of the feast in the Republic of Plato according to Eric Voegelin

Eric Voegelin interprets Platonic dialogues with great insight and originality, making their author the center of his philosophy and vision of history. In the “Republic” all events become symbols  of the then situation of Athens, and looking deeper of the drama of the soul seeking truth among the death and darkness of the cave. Symbols of life, death, light, darkness, mountain, bottom are intertwined with each other, showing the attempts at research (zetema) of the Transcendent Order as the source of all existence. All this is woven into the then Greek culture and morality, the key symbol is the feast at which Socrates was invited by Polemarch.  The feast, a traditional way of spending time by the elite of ancient Hellas, was used as a field for a thorough, comprehensive critique of the social relations of that time, and above all the state of souls of the people of that time. 

Key words: Voegelin: Plato; Cave; Agathon

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Łukasz Mikołaj Suski
• Starożytna agape jako przykład chrześcijańskiej fraternizacji
• An ancient agape as the example of Christian’s fraternization

The article presents ancient sources concerning the old Christian agapae and the way of feasting in times of first Christians. Author focuses on the Holy Scripture, treatises of the Church Fathers, and also non-Christian texts. In antiquity, feast served multiple roles. Primarily it united the community. Participants took part in the religious life and were also provided with entertainment. On the basis of material mentioned above, it is possible to analyse the social aspect of Christian communities in a limited way, yet still bringing us closer to the historical course of feasts. It is worth adding that a feast, whatever form it takes, artistic, metaphorical or real, it is a testimony of a given social group. Moreover, the most important goal of the agapae was emphasized: development of the highest form of love (ἀγάπη) among its brothers and sisters in faith and towards God.

Key words: agape, Eucharist, feast, early Christianity, fraternization, Church

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Adam Michał Ostrowski
Agathos Daimon – Dionizos a Ukrzyżowany: dionizyjskie aspekty Misterium Eucharystii
Agathos Daimon – Dionysus and The Crucified: Dionysian Aspects of the Heavenly Feast in the New Testament

The work takes on the question of similarity of the divine figures of Dionysus and Christ. The greatest attention is given to the mystery cult and phenomenological aspects as well as the experience of divinity in both religious models. The account of Dionysus’ myth and cult’s character, dominating through the work, leads to the comparison of the god with the New Testament Eucharist mystery. A new concept of God’s intimate closeness, who through Incarnation gives His life for humanity, is interpreted as the fulfillment and perfecting of the ancient mystery cults, including the Dionysian one.

Key words: Dionysus, Christ, mystery cults, epiphany, wine

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Sylwia Stolarczyk
• Wpływ prawa na obyczajowość społeczeństwa rzymskiego między II a I w. p.n.e. i związana z tym ewolucja zasad ucztowania
• The Influence of Law on Morality of the Roman Society between II and I century BC and the Evolution of the Rules of Feasting

Feasting in ancient Rome was an integral part of the everyday life of the aristocracy, as well as aform of celebration for other citizens of the republic. The extent to which it grew into the Roman mentality is evidenced by numerous examples of literary and plastic works. 

After the Second Punic War, when the glorious moderation was gradually replaced by splendour, the manner of feasting among the mighty also changed. The problem of escalating excess was perceived both by average citizens and the nobles themselves, who, not wanting to lose political support, tried to condemn profligacy in order to gain the favour of voters. The concerted goal of keeping morality in check led to the enactment of laws that were meant to indicate the limits of extravagance, as well as to express the desired shape of Roman feasting customs. 

In this article, I describe the various acts that were supposed to regulate feasting, and attempt to examine the influence of the laws on the manner of feasting and the mentality of Roman society.

Key words: Feasting, leges cibariae, Ancient Rome, morals, Roman law

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Viktoryia Bartsevich
„Byle w piekłach nie tknęła potrawy”, czyli droga od dzieciństwa do dorosłości poprzez
mitologiczny Hades w filmie Guillermo del Toro Labirynt fauna

This article focuses on the reception of the mythological Hades, and in particular the theme of eating food in the hereafter. Guillermo del Toro’s El laberinto del fauno shows the process of the main character’s coming of age by referring to mythologies and beliefs of different nations. The director builds the plot by setting it in the reality of war, which makes the road to adulthood difficult. The whole film is filled with symbolism, which undoubtedly makes it difficult to unambiguously interpret the plot.

Key words: Fairy tale, Hades, food, children’s and young adult literature, journey, coming of age, death.

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